Selected papers

Fog architecture for IoT

Vaquero, Luis M., and Luis Rodero-Merino › Finding your Way in the Fog: Towards a Comprehensive Definition of Fog Computing
The cloud is migrating to the edge of the network, where routers themselves may become the virtualisation infrastruc- ture, in an evolution labelled as “the fog”. However, many other complementary technologies are reaching a high level of maturity. Their interplay may dramatically shift the in- formation and communication technology landscape in the following years, bringing separate technologies into a com- mon ground. This paper offers a comprehensive definition of the fog, comprehending technologies as diverse as cloud, sensor networks, peer-to-peer networks, network virtualisa- tion functions or configuration management techniques. We highlight the main challenges faced by this potentially break- through technology amalgamation. Read More ›

Stauffer, Michael › Connectivity solutions for smart TVs
Consumer demand for enjoying any content anywhere, any time, and on any device is driving the need for reliable connectivity between content sources and consumption devices inside the home. A key content consumption device in the home is the TV. In this paper, we describe the connectivity challenges associated with Smart TVs to ensure a positive user experience and present some solutions that achieve these requirements. We also describe how the TV can incorporate the latest networking technologies to enable new types of user experiences. Read More ›

Fodor, Gábor, et al › Fog computing and its role in the internet of things
Fodor, Gábor, et al › Design aspects of network assisted device-to-device communications
Device-to-device (D2D) communications underlaying a cellular infrastructure has been proposed as a means of taking advantage of the physical proximity of communicating devices, increasing resource utilization, and improving cellular coverage. Relative to the traditional cellular methods, there is a need to design new peer discovery methods, physical layer procedures, and radio resource management algorithms that help realize the potential advantages of D2D communications. In this article we use the 3GPP Long Term Evolution system as a baseline for D2D design, review some of the key design challenges, and propose solution approaches that allow cellular devices and D2D pairs to share spectrum resources and thereby increase the spectrum and energy efficiency of traditional cellular networks. Simulation results illustrate the viability of the proposed design. Read More ›

Essaili, A. El, et al › Quality-of-experience driven adaptive HTTP media delivery
This paper presents a Quality of Experience (QoE) driven approach for multi-user resource optimization in Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) over next generation wireless networks. Our objective is to enhance the user experience in adaptive HTTP streaming by jointly considering the characteristics of the media content and the available wireless resources in the operator network. Specifically, we propose a proactive QoE-based approach for rewriting the client HTTP requests at a proxy in the mobile network. The advantage of the proposed approach is its applicability for over-the-top (OTT) streaming as it requires no adaptation of the media content. We compare our proposed scheme to both reactive QoE-optimized and to standard-DASH HTTP streaming. Our contributions are: 1) We first show that standard OTT DASH leads to unsatisfactory performance since the content agnostic resource allocation by the LTE scheduler is far from optimal, and we can achieve a clear QoE improvement when considering the content characteristics. 2) We additionally show that proactively rewriting the client requests gives control of the video content adaptation to the network operator which has better information than the client on the load and radio conditions in the cell. This results in additional gains in user perceived video quality. 3) A standard unmodified DASH client remains unaware of the proposed rewriting of the HTTP requests and can decode and play the redirected media segments. Read More ›

Brush, A. J., et al › Lab of things: a platform for conducting studies with connected devices in multiple homes
Hong, Kirak, et al › Mobile fog: a programming model for large-scale applications on the internet of things
Flavio Bonomi, et al › The Smart and Connected Vehicle and the Internet of Things
Hong, Kirak, et al › Mobile fog: a programming model for large-scale applications on the internet of things
Pantelopoulos, Alexandros, and Nikolaos G. Bourbakis › A survey on wearable sensor-based systems for health monitoring and prognosis
The design and development of wearable biosensor systems for health monitoring has garnered lots of attention in the scientific community and the industry during the last years. Mainly motivated by increasing healthcare costs and propelled by recent technological advances in miniature biosensing devices, smart textiles, microelectronics, and wireless communications, the continuous advance of wearable sensor-based systems will potentially transform the future of healthcare by enabling proactive personal health management and ubiquitous monitoring of a patient's health condition. These systems can comprise various types of small physiological sensors, transmission modules and processing capabilities, and can thus facilitate low-cost wearable unobtrusive solutions for continuous all-day and any-place health, mental and activity status monitoring. This paper attempts to comprehensively review the current research and development on wearable biosensor systems for health monitoring. A variety of system implementations are compared in an approach to identify the technological shortcomings of the current state-of-the-art in wearable biosensor solutions. An emphasis is given to multiparameter physiological sensing system designs, providing reliable vital signs measurements and incorporating real-time decision support for early detection of symptoms or context awareness. In order to evaluate the maturity level of the top current achievements in wearable health-monitoring systems, a set of significant features, that best describe the functionality and the characteristics of the systems, has been selected to derive a thorough study. The aim of this survey is not to criticize, but to serve as a reference for researchers and developers in this scientific area and to provide direction for future research improvements Read More ›

Wu, Geng, et al › M2M: From mobile to embedded internet
Is M2M hype or the future of our information society? What does it take to turn the M2M vision into reality? In this article we discuss the business motivations and technology challenges for machine-to-machine communications. We highlight key M2M application requirements and major technology gaps. We analyze the future directions of air interface technology improvements and network architectures evolution to enable the mass deployment of M2M services. In particular, we consider the salient features of M2M traffic that may not be supported efficiently by present standards, and provide an overview of potential enhancements. Finally, we discuss standards development for M2M. Read More ›

Lim, Hyung-Taek, Lars Völker, and Daniel Herrscher › Challenges in a future IP/Ethernet-based in-car network for real-time applications
Zhang, Yan, et al › Home M2M networks: architectures, standards, and QoS improvement
It is envisioned that home networks will shift from current machine-to-human communications to the machine-to-machine paradigm with the rapid penetration of embedded devices in home surroundings. In this article, we first identify the fundamental challenges in home M2M networks. Then we present the architecture of home M2M networks decomposed into three subareas depending on the radio service ranges and potential applications. Finally, we focus on QoS management in home M2M networks, considering the increasing number of multimedia devices and growing visual requirements in a home area. Three standards for multimedia sharing and their QoS architectures are outlined. Cross-layer joint admission and rate control design is reported for QoS-aware multimedia sharing. This proposed strategy is aware of the QoS requirements and resilience of multimedia services. Illustrative results indicate that the joint design is able to intelligently allocate radio bandwidth based on QoS demands in resource-constrained home M2M networks. Read More ›

Lien, Shao-Yu, Kwang-Cheng Chen, and Yonghua Lin › Toward ubiquitous massive accesses in 3GPP machine-to-machine communications
To enable full mechanical automation where each smart device can play multiple roles among sensor, decision maker, and action executor, it is essential to construct scrupulous connections among all devices. Machine-to-machine communications thus emerge to achieve ubiquitous communications among all devices. With the merit of providing higher-layer connections, scenarios of 3GPP have been regarded as the promising solution facilitating M2M communications, which is being standardized as an emphatic application to be supported by LTE-Advanced. However, distinct features in M2M communications create diverse challenges from those in human-to-human communications. To deeply understand M2M communications in 3GPP, in this article, we provide an overview of the network architecture and features of M2M communications in 3GPP, and identify potential issues on the air interface, including physical layer transmissions, the random access procedure, and radio resources allocation supporting the most critical QoS provisioning. An effective solution is further proposed to provide QoS guarantees to facilitate M2M applications with inviolable hard timing constraints. Read More ›

Zhang, Bo, et al › LocalTree: An efficient algorithm for mobile peer-to-peer live streaming
To provide live streaming service to mobile users, traditionally each user pulls content from a server over his cellular network. In order to overcome the scalability problem of last-hop bandwidth bottleneck, mobile peer-to-peer (P2P) streaming can be used where mobile devices relay their stream received in a multi-hop manner by means of a secondary channel (such as Wi-Fi or bluetooth). We investigate the design of distributed algorithm termed LocalTree, which minimizes the number of broadcasters while meeting a certain video quality requirement under peer churns. We first formulate the problem and show that it is NP-hard, and hence propose LocalTree which achieves robustness similar to an unstructured mesh and low delay similar to a global tree. Simulation results show that LocalTree outperforms other algorithms substantially in terms of number of broadcasters used (by as much as 50%). Read More ›

Bonomi, Flavio, et al › Fog Computing: A Platform for Internet of Things and Analytics
Internet of Things (IoT) brings more than an explosive proliferation of endpoints. It is disruptive in several ways. In this chapter we examine those disruptions, and propose a hierarchical distributed architecture that extends from the edge of the network to the core nicknamed Fog Computing. In particular, we pay attention to a new dimension that IoT adds to Big Data and Analytics: a massively distributed number of sources at the edge. Read More ›

Mugen Peng, Senior Member, IEEE, Shi Yan, Kecheng Zhang, and Chonggang Wang › Fog Computing based Radio Access Networks: Issues and Challenges
A fog computing based radio access network (F-RAN) is presented in this article as a promising paradigm for the fifth generation (5G) wireless communication system to provide high spectral and energy efficiency. The core idea is to take full advantages of local radio signal processing, cooperative radio resource management, and distributed storing capabilities in edge devices, which can decrease the heavy burden on fronthaul and avoid large-scale radio signal processing in the centralized baseband unit pool. This article comprehensively presents the system architecture and key techniques of F-RANs. In particular, key techniques and their corresponding solutions, including transmission mode selection and interference suppression, are discussed. Open issues in terms of edge caching, software-defined networking, and network function virtualization, are also identified. Read More ›